Special Species Lists

Dutch Caribbean Key Conservations Species

High Conservation Value Species

Species of high conservation value in the Dutch Caribbean have been identified by the IUCN, CITES, SPAW, Birdlife International and experts. The species have a high conservation value because they are recognised as endangered, endemic (restricted range) or as having a high economic value.

Any list of species is a dynamic list that continuously evolves: the IUCN and CITES lists are updated periodically as new discoveries about species and their distributions are made constantly.

The following lists of species have been put together to consolidate existing lists of as they stand in 2012. The distribution data (population on each island) was given to DCNA from the relevant authority for the list, or the managers of protected areas on the islands.

These lists and the associated data are intended as a starting point for a comprehensive and continual review of the information contained within.

This ‘special species list’ was last updated in December of 2012. The species information and summaries are continuously updated on the official websites of the corresponding international conservation organisations. If you intend to use any species information from the lists, please ensure to verify up-to-date content.
If you happen to find any inconsistencies in information, please let us know at research@dcnanature.org.


List categories: The following categories have been used to identify species of high conservation value.

Common Group Name This is a name given to the group of flora or fauna the species belongs to, it is to help identification only and is not taxonomically correct.
Scientific Name Formal species name.
English Name Most commonly used English name.
Island Name Mark included if the species is found on the island.
Red List Critical The IUCN maintains a complete list of all the species it considers critically endangered, endangered or vulnerable to extinction. The IUCN Red List does not cover many species, especially marine organisms. The ‘Red List’ of Species can be found on the IUCN Red List website including further definitions. The status of many populations of flora and fauna is unknown, those that are known and have been included on the list are classified under the following headings:
– CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR): A species is Critically Endangered when it is considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
– ENDANGERED (EN): A species is Endangered when it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.
– VULNERABLE (VU): A species is Vulnerable when it is considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
Red List Endangered
Red List Vulnerable
CITES I CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
– Appendix I (AI) includes species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.
– Appendix II (AII) includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid use incompatible with their survival.
Island Endemic Island Endemic species are restricted to one island. Local endemics may be found on neighbouring islands and regional endemics may be found on other sites in the region although their population is restricted. These species have only been identified on Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao.
Local Endemic
Regional Endemic
SPAW The SPAW is the protocol concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife in the Caribbean region (SPAW)  from the Gulf of Mexico to the Caribbean Sea. Signatories to the SPAW protocol are obliged to make provisions for all threatened or endangered species on the territory of each Party to be given a protected species status, and the control, and if need be, banning of their capture, gathering, possession, trade and disruption. The species for protection are listed under three Annexes.
Birdlife IBA The Important Bird Area Programme of BirdLife International aims to identify, monitor and protect a global network of IBAs for the conservation of the world’s birds and other biodiversity. Twenty-three IBA sites have been recognised in the Dutch Caribbean that meets certain criteria, based on the occurrence of key bird species that are vulnerable to global extinction or whose populations are otherwise irreplaceable. Birds have been shown to be effective indicators of biodiversity in other animal groups and plants – especially when used to define a set of sites for conservation. So although the IBA network is defined by its bird fauna, the conservation of these sites would ensure the survival of a correspondingly large number of other animals and plants.
Flagship Species Iconic and charismatic plants and animals that provide a focus for raising awareness and stimulating action and funding for broader conservation efforts. These were identified in 2012 by staff of the Dutch Caribbean’s Park Management Organisations.
Notes Any further notes on the species.



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ABC Endemic Species

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

CITES Species

SPAW Species

Flagship Species

Important Bird Areas Species