Treaties & Conventions


Convention on Biological Diversity

The Convention on Biological Diversity was inspired by the world community’s growing commitment to sustainable development. It represents a dramatic step forward in the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.

Visit the website of CBD


Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna en Flora

Because the trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation to safeguard certain species from over-exploitation. CITES was conceived in the spirit of such cooperation. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 30,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.

Visit the website of CITES


Convention on Migratory Species

The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also known as CMS or Bonn Convention) aims to conserve terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range. It is an intergovernmental treaty, concluded under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, concerned with the conservation of wildlife and habitats on a global scale.

Visit the website of CMS


Ramsar Convention

The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, called the Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.

Visit the website of RAMSAR


Cartagena Convention

The Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (the Cartagena Convention) is the only legally binding environmental treaty for the Wider Caribbean. The Convention and its Protocols constitute a legal commitment by the participating governments to protect, develop and manage their common waters individually or jointly.

  • Oil Spills Protocol – Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Oil Spills in the Wider Caribbean Region
  • SPAW Protocol – Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife
  • LBS Protocol – Protocol Concerning Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution

Visit the website of the Cartagena Convention


International Maritime Origanisation

The International Maritime Origanisation (IMO) is the United Nations specialised agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine pollution by ships. Its original mandate was principally concerned with maritime safety. However, soon after it began functioning, it assumed responsibility for pollution issues and subsequently has, over many years, adopted a wide range of measures to prevent and control pollution caused by ships and to mitigate the effects of any damage that may occur as a result of maritime operations and accidents.

  • MARPOL – International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
  • London Convention – Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter
  • BWM Convention – International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments

Visit the website of the International Maritime Origanisation